Homo neanderthalis

Neandethal Skull ©Wiki Commons
Neandethal Skull
©Wiki Commons

Name:                                Homo neanderthalis

Other names:

Age:                                    300,000 – 28,000 years ago

Height:                              Male 1.64m (5 foot 5 inches) average; Female 1.55m (5 foot 1                                                       inch) average

Weight:                             Males 65 kg (143 lbs); Females 54 kg (119 lbs)

Brain Size:                       1200 cc – 1450 cc Larger than modern human brains

Description:                   Short bodies, thick bones, oldest remains found in Spain dating                                                   to 300,000 years ago

Diet:                                   Large and small mammals including reindeer and red deer,                                                           mollusks, seals, dolphins, berries, nuts and plants.

Culture:                           Mostly uncovered in Europe and western Asia, made ornamental                                              objects, symbolic objects, lived in shelters, wore clothing,                                                              controlled fire, buried their dead, sometimes marked graves of                                                    those they had buried.

Tool Culture:                  At the time period of the Mousterian Culture. They made flakes,                                                 scrapers, points from cores, to make knives, spears, bows and                                                     arrows. These were used for hunting and sewing.

Date Discovered:           1856

Area Discovered:           Neander Valley, near Düsseldorf, Germany

Who Discovered:           Workmen quarrying limestone – they informed French                                                                   paleontologist Marcellin Boule.


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  • Campbell. B. G. 2009. Human Evolution: An Introduction to Man’s Adaptions. Jersey, USA: Transaction Publishers.
  • Collins. D., Whitehouse. R., Henig. M., & Whitehouse. D. 1973. Background to Archaeology: Britain and its European Setting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cunliffe. B. 2001. The Oxford Illustrated History of Prehistoric Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Feder. K. L. 2007. The Past in Perspective: An Introduction to Human Prehistory. London: McGraw Hill.
  • Gamble. C. 1999. The Palaeolithic Societies of Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Khanna. D. R. 2004. Human Evolution. New Delhi, India: Discovery Publishing House.
  • Turnbaugh. W. A., Jurmain. R., Kilgore. L., & Nelson. H. 2002. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology. 8th Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.


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