What is a Civitas?
Civitas is Latin for citizen. The term was used by the Romans in two situations
The Romans did not just grant citizenship to people all the time, it had to be earned, and slaves could be rewarded for being loyal and good, with citizenship.
Civitas status would be awarded to tribal centres and towns where they had a sometimes independent role than that of Roman citizens. In Britain this was awarded to previous towns and also tribal centres under client kings or queens, they had a principate who was in charge, and also comprised of elected councils and magistrates. The citizens also had a social responsibility that tied them together under a common purpose.
Civitas stones, as shown in the photo above, would be made and displayed in a prominent position to show that a town or community was a part of the Roman Empire.
Archaeology Wow!! – German First World War Trench
In 2012 archaeologists clearing a site for a new road came across the perfectly preserved remains of a First World War German trench.
The 21 soldiers, all belonging to the 6th Company, 94th Reserve Infantry, were in their trench when a bomb blasted next to it burying them in mud and other debris, on the 18th March, 1918. The remains of the soldiers were found lying in their beds, sitting upright, and one in a crouched position.
The trench was 300 foot long, made up of a wooden floor, sides and steps, and had been fitted with electricity, telephone, heating and a pump to remove water. Personal artefacts from the soldiers included boots, helmets, weapons, wine bottles, wallets, glasses, pipes, pocket books, cigarette cases, and German newspapers.
Archaeologist Michael Landolt explained they even found the skeleton of a goat which is beleived to have supplied the soldiers with fresh milk.
An incredible find, from a period and war that should never be forgotten………………..
Archaeological Site Guide – Machu Picchu, Peru
Machu Picchu is one of the worlds best known archaeological sites. Situated high in the Andes mountain Range in Peru, South America, the site was first noted by Higham Bingham, an American historian in 1911.
It is thought that the site was built for the Incan emperor Pachacuti (1438-1472) but its function and purpose are still not agreed upon. Theories are that the site was
The site includes
It also has stairways and terraces cut into the rock. Finds from the site taken in 1912, 1914-1915 include ceramics, silver statues, human remains and jewelry. Some of the finds were not from local materials and therefore gives evidence that the city had long distance trade connections.
It is not understood yet why the site was abandoned, it may have been smallpox bought into Peru by the Spanish.
In 1976 30% of the site had been restored and in 1983 it was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list. Machu Picchu is currently on the endangered sites list due to the number of visitors it attracts each year and environmental conditions.
Great Books to Read…….
Great Web Pages to Look At…….
Activity – Word Search 23 January 2015 docx