Who Was Peter Vilhelm Glob?; Tune Ship Viking Burial; Aquincum, Hungary.

Who was Peter Vilhelm Glob?

Peter Vilhelm Glob was a Danish archaeologist who lived between 1911 – 1985. He is best known and remembered for his work with Bronze Age bog bodies, especially Tolland Man.

Professor Glob ©www.tollundman.dk
Professor Glob
©www.tollundman.dk

Investigating and researching Tolland Man was not all that Professor Glob is well known for, he also researched Viking life on Greenland, and undertook archaeological investigations in the Middle East.

In the 1950’s Professor Glob and British archaeologist T. G. Bibby made the connection between Bahrain being the ancient trading center of Dilmun with its origins dating back to the 3rd millennium BC.

Biddy and Glob in Bahrain ©videnskab.dk
Biddy and Glob in Bahrain
©videnskab.dk

As well as his archaeological field work, Professor Glob was the Director General of Museums and Antiquities in Denmark, the Director of the National Museum in Copenhagen and co-founder of the Scandinavian Institute of Comparative Vandalism which studies the history of graffiti. He also published two books,

  • The Bog People, 1969
  • The Mound People, 1974

Peter Vilhelm Glob is a name that should be remembered for his contribution to archaeology in Denmark, Greenland and the Middle East.

References

  • Dumper. M., & Stanley. B. E. 2007. Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
  • Kipfer.B. A. 2000. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Sanders. K. 2009. Bodies in the Bog and the Archaeological Imagination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Archaeology Wow!! –  The Tune Ship Viking Burial

The Tune Viking ship burial was uncovered in 1867 at a farm near Østfold, in Norway. It was excavated by Oluf Rygh but due to the way archaeology was undertaken at the time, a lot of information about the burial was lost.

The burial mound the ship came from was known to be large for one of its type, measuring 80 m in diameter and around 4 m high and this is possibly why it was chosen to be investigated. Previously, someone had attempted to dig inside the mound and had exposed the actual ship timbers to oxygen which resulted in it partially decomposing, later, when excavated, horses were used to drag the remains of the boat from the mound resulting in more vital information being lost and causing damage to the ship.

Tune Ship © Wiki Commons - China Crisis
Tune Ship
© Wiki Commons – China Crisis

The burial ship was built around AD 900 and in its original state would have measured around 22m long and 4.35 m wide. It was made of oak wood which was held together by clinker nails with rounded heads. There were moldings on the edges of all the boards. Holes placed along the edges give an estimated oar capacity of 12 pairs, meaning 24 men would have manned the ship.

Hull of Ship ©Oluf Rygh
Hull of Ship
©Oluf Rygh

The burial was oriented NNW by SSE and at the center of the ship would have been the burial chamber. Archaeological evidence has shown that juniper bushes were piled up on the inside of the ship, and on top of these the body was laid, together with a horse, weapons, beads, some clothes, a saddle, snow skis, harness and some wooden carvings. The skeletons of two more horses were discovered outside of the ships hull. With these grave goods it demonstrates that the burial was that of a high status individual.

Tune Ship Details ©Oluf Rygh
Tune Ship Details
©Oluf Rygh

The ship is now located at the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo, a really beautiful example of an early Viking ship and well worth visiting!

References

  • Brandt. J. R., Ingvaldsen. H., & Prusac. M. 2014. Death and Changing Rituals: Function and Meaning in Ancient Funerary Practices. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  • Brink. S., & Price. N. 2008. The Viking World. Oxon: Routledge.
  • Ferguson. R. 2009. The Hammer and the Cross: A New History of the Vikings. London: Penguin Books.
  • Muckleroy. K. 1978.  Maritime Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rygh. O. 1872. The Ancient Vessel Found in the Parish of Tune, Norway. Ringvold, Norway.
  • “TuneShip” by China Crisis – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.5 via Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:TuneShip.jpg#/media/File:TuneShip.jpg

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Archaeological Site Guide – Aquincum, Hungary

Aquincum was the name of the Roman city situated on the Roman limes, on the Danube. The limes were the Roman Empire’s eastern frontier in Europe. The city was located near the Celtic oppidium situated on Mount Gellért.

The area was originally held by the Celtic Eravisci Tribe but was taken over by the Romans when their Empire expanded eastwards. The site became a key military base and the governors palace was located on an island on the Danube, just in front of the fort.

Aquincum Amphitheatre ©Wiki Commons
Aquincum Amphitheatre
©Wiki Commons

Between AD 41-54 there was a Roman garrison of 500 cavalry stationed at the site of the fort. Around the year 89 a new timber and earth fortress was erected by Legio II Adiutrix, also that year 6000 soldiers from Legio X Gernina were stationed there, plus soldiers from IIII Flavia.

In AD 106 the site became the Roman capital of Pannonia Inferior and surrounding the fort retired soldiers from Legio X Gernina settled down once they retired from the Roman Army. Later that century there was an estimated population of between 3,000 – 4,000 residents. Under Hadrian the site became a municipium c. AD 124.

Budapest – Aquincum © By Elelicht
Budapest – Aquincum
© By Elelicht

Between AD 161-167 the fort was garrisoned by Legio IV Flavia Felix under the command of Septimus Severus. The site then covered a total of 124 acres located north of the fortress and included two amphitheaters, a civil one and a military one. One of the main products produced in the area were shields for the Roman army.

In 270 the Vandals attacked the surrounding countryside and by 375 most of the area and site were in ruins. A steady decline followed and the once important city was left to crumble.

Definitely worth a visit and one of its many museums sits on the site.

References

  • MacGregor. A. 1997. Summary Catalogue of the Continental Archaeological Collections in the Ashmolean Museum. Ashmolean Museum.
  • Merrils. A., & Miles. R. 2009. The Vandals. Indianna: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Mócsy. A. 2014. Pannonia and Upper Moesia (Routledge Revivals): A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire. Oxon: Routledge.
  • Budapest – Aquincum – © By Elelicht (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

 

Great Books to Read…….

               

                

Great Web Pages to Look At…….

 

Activity – word-search-17-april-2015-docx

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